24-02-2015, 17:42PrintThe mountaineering or mountaineering, he is born in the alpes at the end of the XVIIIth century like a discipline that consists of realizing ascensions to the mountains. It is also the set of skills, knowledge and skills faced to the achievement of this target. The mountaineering is not a simple sport, since it derives from an ancient exploratory activity of the being human and as such it is provided with a history and very important traditions that determine quite definite ethics (by fair means) that is the report you water down between this discipline and other forms of tourism of adventure. Also, who practise it consider it to be a real life style and a way of experiencing and of interpreting the world that surrounds them.
The mountaineering might split into four areas that include diverse specialties, some of which move away from the strict definition of promoting mountains, but that nevertheless, need of this natural way for its practice: senderismo (or hiking), hiking (or trekking) and expeditions; sports climb (and boulder) and climb in ice; duatlon in mountain, there comes up marathon of mountain and marathon of mountain; barranquismo, ski mountaineering and mountain bicycle.
The term mountaineering often understands like the sport practised in the high mountains, that is to say, the height mountaineering. This way the one who climbs to the mountains one calls him moutain sport and not on alone whom he practises one of the mentioned specialties. Also when one speaks about a course or manual of mountaineering, this one focuses on the hiking for the mountains and not on the whole scale of specialties that are mentioned.
Mountaineering, mountaineering and himalayismo
It is important to say that the term mountaineering is usually used like synonymous as well as the terms mountaineering and himalayismo but with some historical or geographical reservations that depend it is of the origins and traditions of this activity than of the typical characteristics of these mountain ranges, same that they generate ascent styles.
The term Mountaineering derives from alpe (steep mountain) and up to the date two is most used with regard to others for historical reasons, because the activity mountain modern, its schools and its clubs originated principally in The European Alps, earlier and after the official birth of this activity with the first ascent of Mont Blanc on August , .
One usually uses the term mountaineering of general form for several sports activities that develop in the mountains, while the mountaineering is a very specific term for the activity to promote mountains in the Alps, with low heights to . msnm, including the ascensions of high difficulty (climb). The mountaineering consists of promoting mountains in the Mountain range of the Andes and . usually collaborates with heights even msnm. The himalayismo consists of the ascension of mountains of the Himalayas with altitudes of . msnm. These distinctions not only involve differences in the logistics (equipment to be used and planning of the ascent), but also in the physical condition of the mountain, its acclimation and the available resources.
It is necessary to emphasize that in some countries where there do not exist abrupt mountain ranges (climb) that are provided with at the same time with sceneries of high mountain (glaciers), the term mountaineering applies to itself for ascensions of low difficulty (it goes or hiking) that is to say that do not imply Alpine climb, and it usually differ much from the activity of Mountaineering that indicates more technical ascensions and claimants.
The Dictionary includes in addition to the term "mountaineer", that of "mountaineer", referred to the person who climbs the Andes and other mountains altas.
Areas and specialties
Twelve specialties can gather together in four areas for its affinity. With it there are simplified also the materials, the skills and the trainings:
climb in ice
duatlon in mountain
mountain marathon comes up
Every specialty has proper characteristics in sports skills, in training, in materials and in sports medicine. The point together that they all have, except the sports climb, is that “the field” is the nature that, with its environmental peculiarities, modifies substantially the sports activity according to the season, the altitude, the temperature or the climatology of the day. Therefore this sport is of big complexity for the different skills that it is necessary to use, for the different materials for each one, for the changeability of the stage of the sports work and for the need to maintain a level of permanent safety. For which, the mountaineering is necessary a previous preparation adapted before practising it.
Equipment of the mountain
The mountain uses of a particular clothing in addition to a set of accessories and gadgetry known as team. Although the mountaineering can change very much for the type of trip, there is described the clothing and the necessary general team. A very important aspect in the mountaineering is the weight of the equipment. They look for useful and portable objects, of the least weight and possible volume.
Drink: indispensable canteen to take water and to drink when it is needed. Important to take also some drink isotonics.
Meal: generally the trip is long and it is not probable to find where to stock up with food, also in case of being late or to get lost is important to be provided with meal (preferably liofilizada or dehydrated). It is worth while taking energy elements like chocolate, dry fruits or bars of cereals, since they provide enough energy occupying very little. Depending on the duration of the trip, it can be suitable to add apples, nuts, oranges, peaches, fruits in syrup, gelatine, chocolates, honey, jams, cookies, tea, milk to prepare, cheese, ham, salami, etc.
A few good mountain boots are indispensable to prepare slips and lumbar problems.
This one must be adapted to the way or the means along which it goes to go along.
Footwear: The most common sound a few short boots in order to which they protect of the ankles sprains, with anti-skid sole and which are comfortable.
Clothes: Adapted to the climate and to the place that will be visited. It is always better long pants and pledges of long sleeve to protect us from the solar beams, plants and light stings. And depending on the place, a jacket that cuts the wind and is impermeable to protect us from the occasional inclemencies of the time. Gloves.
Hat and glasses: When there is necessary a hat that is always better that the cap, to protect us from the sun or rain. The glasses must possess the correct category, so that I leaked the visible light and avoided injuries in the cornea.
Handkerchief: a handkerchief of certain size, approximately of the one that is used the head wraps up, it can be very useful, as to wet and to refresh someone who has fainted for a heatstroke, to gather wild fruits if we do not take bag, to stop up a wound, to realize an immobilization in case of injury of joint or break, to realize a tourniquet, etc.
Indispensable basic team for a mountain (in the areas of climb and specifics, it would be necessary to add the proper ones of every specialty):
Ice axe and crampons: for frozen surfaces.
Walk cane: of aluminum, wood or bamboo, generally some very similar are used to those of ski but with the difference that a rosette of major size is placed to them in the end, this provides major stability and grip to us in addition to protecting us from possible injuries.
Rucksack: of size and with qualities in accordance with the duration of the excursion and to the team that will behave, the climate and the serviceability. A mountaineering rucksack must be of quality so that it resists the maltreatment and the self help of the activity, of impermeable preference. It has to be able to hold to the back leaving the free hands completely, also it is adapted that it has adjustment of waist and of breast to make itself comfortable completely to the body and to prevent with the proper movement of the activity from being struck or hindering. The thongs must be wide and slightly rigid. Likewise it is can carry a water tank with a pipe to hydrate us in the way.
Razor: very useful in diverse situations along the activity (it is recommended to take a razor that closes and good is opened, type Swiss razor, which has good knife-edge and has a resistant insurance). The razor must have at least mm of length in the sharp part since with a razor that it has it is very short of knife-edge it will not be able to cut long at all like for example bread, bacon and other things that can take in the excursion.
I equip of camped
In exits of more than one day in which to camp is needed, they will have to think in addition to extra food and a lamp:
Tent: It is a tent or shop, principally of synthetic cloth that being portable serves to sleep and to be protected from the meteorological inclemencies, as well as from bugs stings during the night, in addition to allowing a certain intimacy.
Sleeping bag: It is adapted to sleep comfortably and he avoids to spend cold in addition to diminishing the possible contact with insects and other animals.
Insulating mat or under carpet: It is a thermal insulator consisting of a flexible plate generally of a synthetic froth, which is placed under the sleeping bag and, it is used to avoid the rugosity of the area, to minimize the temperature differential between the body and the soil, as well as to protect of the moisture.
Plastic sleeve: it serves for one without uses end, from protecting you from the soil moisture, happening for doing awnings, water protectors improvising, surfaces to sleep, even to do a rudimentary survival still.
Seismiles of Salta