24-02-2015, 17:33PrintAn athlete sport means 'competition', it is a person who possesses a physical capacity, force, agility and/or resistance superior to the average, and consequently, it is suitable for physical activity, especially for the competitive ones.
In more specific words, an athlete is who practises or he practised the athletics, or who for example was taking part in the ancient Olympic Games. A person who practises physical activity with intensity or more times per week and who takes a diet and identical life style to give good results physically.
There can be considered to be many factors to choose the best athlete, since four props of an athlete are the resistance, the force, the speed and the agility, and many athletes stand out in different sport disciplines. Especially they devote themselves to compete in different sports.
There were calling this way between the Greeks a few robust and courageous men who were devoting themselves to the exercises of the body to enjoy the award in the career, in the struggle, etc. and also the poets, historians and musicians who were fighting publicly to reach the award proposed to the winners in those contests. In Rome it was indicating properly the fighters and those that they were fighting in the boxing, since all the other athletes had particular names.
The institution of the athletic combats is the most ancient. One believes that Licaon was the first one that established those of Arcadia, and that Hércules that made Olimpia famous. According to the Homero testimony it seems that before the war of Troy they were already celebrated to make the funerals of the big men more solemn. But it is of believing that then it would not be a different profession, but part of the military exercises as it happened later one century before Platón when the frequency of the same games and the hope of the award and of the reputation put in supreme credit the gymnastics of the athletes.
In Greece, the athletes were of free condition, to the step that between the Romans they were slaves or freedmen.
These games invented by the value and the virtue, degenerated into vice and vanity. The official who was presiding at the exercises was calling agonistarco, name derived from the Greek voice agon, combat or fight, by what it is called agonistic - the science of the combats or art of the athletes and also gymnastics for nudes fight.
The athletes were observing a diet of particular life. In the first times, if we believe Plinio and Pausanias, they were not supported but of dry figs, nuts and tender cheese. According to Plinio, a famous teacher of forum called Pitágoras, contemporary of the philosopher of the same name, it was the first one that allowed them the use of the meat and the first athlete who ate it his name was Eutímenes. In Hipócrates time they ate it really, how it is deduced of its Epidemic. Nevertheless, they did not eat indiscriminately of any meat species: the most solid and consequently the most proper to give force and a more nourishing food was preferred to all others. The ox and the bacon flavored with vinegar, with a species of very heavy bread without yeast, cutlery with tender cheese called coliphium, were its delicacies; and these meats were rather roast that boiled or cooked, way of feeding called by some authors gerophagia, this is, dry nutriment. Ordinarily the athletes ate with excess similar food. Physician tells that an athlete was thinking about having done a very frugal meal when he had not eaten any more than two mines or two pounds of meat and the proportionate bread. Milon of Crotona scarcely was satisfied by twenty mines of meat, some others of bread and fifteen rogues of wine.
Nevertheless of these excesses, the ancient ones applaud in general its restraint:
First, because they were using with many moderation the wine and the women
Second, because they were preparing with extreme simplicity its food
Third, because much more of it was them who were abstaining on having had to enter the combat and because they were suffering with a patience constantísima the fatigue and the blows.
The nature of the athletic exercises, the heat of the climate and the station in which those games were celebrated were forcing the athletes to fight nudes. They were taking nevertheless a species of girdle or strip called area, which use stopped between the Greeks in the Olympiad XV. owing to which him having fallen down to some Orispo in the middle of the forum and tangled its feet with her it fell down and was defeated.
The nakedness of the athletes was facilitating the use of the anointings destined to communicate to all the parts of the body the necessary flexibility. By the common thing there was used the oil mixed with a certain quantity of wax and of dust, with what there was doing an ointment species to itself called ceroma, name that sometimes was happening also to the place itself that the athletes were smearing called eleothesion, alepterion and unctuarium.
The athletes were making smear for the servants of the forum called aliptæ unctores and sometimes it was they who were smearing themselves themselves mutually. After smeared, the athletes were covered for common with the mud that existed in the forum and with more frequency, of sand or of dust, being stirred in him or doing it to him to take responsibility. This was preliminary so essential one to the struggle and to the pancracio, which the Greeks were saying about an athlete, who should take the award without fighting, that it had won without dust, that is to say, without fatigue and without sorrow. After the contest the athletes were cleaning themselves and ungían again.
The rewards of the painful and terrible fatigue of the athletes were in the beginning the acclamations by which the spectators were honoring its victory, and immediately the awards, which changed according to the times and places. In the sport games called tematici or argiriti they were proposing to themselves for award diverse things that could change for money and in the renowned stefaniti it were not distributed any more that you crown. The first ones were happening, according to Píndaro in diverse places of Greece, as in Lacedemonia, in Tebas, Argus, etc.; and it seems that they were these more ancient that we know, as that by these honored the funerals of Patroclo and of Anquises. The awards proposed in similar games were consisting of slaves, horses, mules, oxen, glasses of bronze with its tripod, of silver cups, of garments and weapon. There were two or three awards for every exercise: in Homero they are seen all that are the combatants.
The games in which crowns were distributed only were the most famous of Greece. The agonoteta was distributing them: a herald was putting them on the head of the winner in the place itself in which it had fought and sometimes the same winners were taking them of the place in which they were placed and were adhering them with their own hand. The winners were honored also by a palm who were going in the left hand and there was this the second award that was happening in all the games of the Greece.
After a winning athlete had received the crown and the palm and that it was covered by covered flowers clothes, it was led by a herald for the whole stadium and its name and its homeland was proclaimed aloud in the middle of the applauses of the spectators, who were polished in victorearle and in to do gifts to him.
The ceremony of the victory enético was always ending with banquets. They were these of two species:
some, they were done at the expense of the public. They were in use in Olimpia, where the winning athletes were maintained in the Pritaneo all the time that the Olympic games lasted;
others, at the expense of the individuals. They were financed by the friends of the winner. The generous sport magazines pdf athletes and of distinction they were giving also its relatives and friends and sometimes, many of the spectators. Alcibiades and Leofron gave an invitation to the whole assembly.
The first and main care of the athletes after the victory was of thanking the gods and fulfilling the votes done to the same ones to obtain it, dedicating in its temples statues, shields and other value gifts.
The winning athletes of big privileges had a good time:
they were presiding at the public games
between the Spartans were fighting next to the king in the military expeditions
they were fed during its life at the expense of the homeland: Solon had assigned pension drachmas to every winning athlete
they were exempt from all the charges and civil functions
its names were noted down in the public archives and the olympiads were differing with the name of the winners: the poets were composing poems in its praise, statues were erected and inscriptions were recorded to eternize the memory of its victory
finally, the divine honors were showing themselves: in spite of the efforts that the elanódicos were doing to suppress these excesses.
The first elemplo of these abuses was that of winning Filipo Crotoniato in the Olympic games, which one was the most beautiful man and formed good of its time. The egestianos raised after its death, according to the Heródoto testimony, a haughty monument and sacrifices did as to a hero. The second example was that of Eutimio de Locrion famous athlete in the boxing, which received in life the divine honors by order of the oracle. The third one is that of Teagenes, adored after its death for the tasios its compatriots and for other Greek and barbarian peoples.
They were not only the adult men those who were entering the combat: in the Olympiad established in Olimpia several awards for the bullfight and for the struggle of young people adetas.
In these games or combats it was deprived the one that the women were assisting. Calipatua mother of crowned Posidonio vain times in the Olympic games pdf magazines, queriendo to lead herself its son, disguised herself as teacher of the exercises of the game. The young man was winning also and the hasty pleasure mother jumped the barrier and throwing itself to the neck of its son announced its sex for the violence of its transports. The judges forgave an excess of the maternal love and excused it; but they arranged that from there from now on the teachers of the athletes had to present entirely nudes to themselves, the same that these, as says Pausanias.
Athletes in the Antigua Rome
Chair was the one that trasport from Greece to Rome the athletes and all the athletic exercises, in order to which the Roman people was resting or relaxing about the big fatigue that he had had to suffer during the civil wars and in that of Mitridates.
In the beginning they were fighting these in the big circus and from here they were led by many pomp to the Acropolis crossing the forum: but having multiplied the exercises, there were made particular amphitheaters or gymnasia destined only for the exercises of the athletes.
The Romans the same way that the Greeks erected statues to the famous athletes, some of which have come up to us.